An infant is normally fed 5 to 8 times each day and will sleep as much as 20 hours a day. Infants are able to make basic observations related to vision, hearing, scent, taste, touch, temperature, and pain. An infant is usually not highly interactive, at least for the first month of their life. At around the age of 2 to 3 months, an infant will usually start to do more visual and oral exploration. They may make noises like cooing and grunting. A baby of this age typically has control of their eye muscles and can lift their head up when they are placed on their stomach. A 4- to 6-month-old baby can typically purposefully roll over and grasp objects. They have control of the head movements at this point. The baby's abilities will continue to expand over the next 6 months until they have control of the legs and feet by about 1 year of age. The child is usually able to stand by 12 months and can typically say a few words. The baby may respond to simplified commands at this point.
Toddlers can be temperamental, no doubt about it. During these years, the child will generally speak a lot, though it often won't be intelligible until they are 3 or so. Once a child is 3, their speech is usually easy to understand at least 50 percent of the time. The toddler will generally recognize shapes, colors, and objects. They will be able to read facial expressions and make eye contact. Many toddlers are quite social, but some simply prefer to keep to themselves.
The adolescent range of "normal" is a wide one. Parents should expect some mood swings, but should also be prepared to come to the doctor if those grow extreme. A normal adolescent is starting to truly explore the world around them and will be very focused on their social life in most cases.
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